The LCS is the low end price data point and the FFG(X) is the more likely data point. guarding the Okinawa amphibious invasion fleet. ESSM in two sections, torpedos, hull sonar and towed array (again one rear and one forward), etc. temptation to gold plate them. and Korea where munition expenditures far exceeded predictions. The pickets succeeded in their Spruance received an early taste of what was to come on 31 March when a diving kamikaze clipped his flagship Indianapolis, severely damaging her with a bomb as it splashed into the sea. warning and no early engagement. Considering the lack of even proper navigation and seamenship of late... "The world wonders?...". required to provide sufficient early warning and engagement. The second would be an unarmed, radar reflective stealth ship.  Thomas B. Buell, The Quiet Warrior: A Biography of Admiral Raymond A. Spruance (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1974), 347. factor that into our ship designs and cost and we need to accept that naval Today, sophisticated radar countermeasures would, undoubtedly, be wounded, primarily from kamikaze attacks. engagement and fighter direction assistance. Even the famously unflappable Spruance was not immune. That means the pickets need to be as cheap as possible with just the bare minimum of weapons and sensors to do the job. The A-400 was a ship the rest of the world expects. Nothing could be further from the truth. Okinawa picket ships were all armored to varying degrees. Inoguchi (1958, 211-34) lists the names of 34 ships sunk by kamikaze attacks, and Warner (1982, 323-34) gives the names of 57 ships sunk by special attack aircraft. The Okinawa example pointed up the need for massive numbers A kamikaze spirit permeated the entire Navy.". Vol. Such tactics had previously been deployed at Leyte Gulf, Luzon and Lingayen, and Iwo Jima, but not on a particularly alarming scale.  COMPHIBPAC, “Suicide Plane Attacks,” 7 July 1945, 4. unarmored and weakly built ships that make up today’s fleet. , The efforts on board aircraft carrier Franklin that same day were even more heroic. Kamikaze strikes and a couple of bomb hits. our ships – far beyond anything imagined by today’s designers. Both O’Callahan and Gary would receive the Medal of Honor for their efforts to save the ship, while 19 other individuals would earn the Navy Cross. For one thing, it is probably too small to be trekking across the Pacific, or even Atlantic, so it may not fit our deployment needs. Yeah, we have serious procurement problems.We just built an $8B+ Zumwalt with fewer VLS than a Burke and no main weapon system. Burkes have a Amtracks from U.S. task force coming ashore on Okinawa, Ryukyus Islands, 1 April 1945. Forget about future growth, these would have 25yr lifespan, designed to be replaced with then-current and proven tech in 20 yrs!! "You didn't quite say it but I'm pretty sure you see it - the implication of your statement is that we need lots of pickets, not just for area coverage but for the expected attrition. But, if most attacks are going to be detected at the radar horizon range (~20 miles), you'll need quite a few ships for that outermost ring to provide sufficient coverage.  Samuel Eliot Morison, History of the United States Naval Operations in World War II. Using Okinawa/kamikazes as a comparison is strikingly accurate!! Thanks. aviators. reality because it drives our ship design sensor and weapons density, fire saturation missile attacks and the US Navy has not devoted any attention to the Now I’m not so sure. One thing this article is not entirely correct is that China planned to export it as it has displayed it in a trade show.https://www.maritime-executive.com/article/china-s-unmanned-mini-destroyer-out-on-sea-trials. Vol. 15 launchers containing six Mark 46 torpedoes, for ASW.Radars would include the APAR multifunction X-Band 3D Radar, due to the decent range, excellent targeting ability, relatively small size and already being designed to support the ESSM. As attacks increased, the pickets were extended out from 40 miles to 60 to provide more lead-time for a counterattack. of ships to stand up to high end saturation attacks and to compensate for sunk  COMPHIBPAC, “Suicide Plane Attacks,” 7 July 1945, 6/7. Although Okinawa is a good example to start from I wonder if there might not be additional value in looking at the projections for the air-sea battles associated with the Olympic landings.As noted in previous comments the speed of aircraft in WW2, combined with the long transits from Japan to Okinawa meant that US forces had fairly significant amounts of time available to them for detection and interception.In contrast, US forces offshore from Kyushu were facing the prospect of Japanese aircraft emerging from the mountains to make direct attacks while the proximity of the landings to Japanese bases increased the likelihood of attacks from multiple directions. Sources differ regarding the number of ships sunk by kamikaze aircraft during World War II. I think the idea has some potential and should be tested extensively but we know that's not USN way of doing biz anymore.... "Have we even tried to work with unmanned pickets?"NO! Operating within this command structure were multiple task forces, including a joint Army-Marine Corps force under Buckner. Three hundred fifty U.S. crewmen died. This was the third time he had transferred his flag in four days, as his two previous flagships, Bunker Hill (CV-17) and Enterprise (CV-6) had both been badly damaged by kamikaze hits off Okinawa. That decision has to balance the size of the radar return we present (broadside versus fore/aft) against the number of defensive weapons we can bring to bear.Given the maneuverability (and terminal maneuverability) of the attacking missiles, it's probably a moot point to try to present a particular aspect. was used as a saturation attack with each of ten major attacks consisting of several for example, has 112 VLS cells that can be loaded with anti-ship missiles. Copy in Admiral Turner Papers, NHHC Archives. the number of defensive weapons installed on our ships. Minesweeping, pre-invasion bombardments from warships, and tactical strikes from carrier-based aircraft paved the way for an uncontested amphibious landing of Lt. General Simon Bolivar Buckner Jr.’s U.S. Tenth Army (made up of U.S. Army Soldiers from the 96th and 7th Army Divisions, as well as Marines from the 1st and 6th Divisions) on Easter Sunday, 1 April 1945 (L-Day). by kamikazes, while the 11 LSM(R)s had three sunk and two damaged. our entire present day fleet and that was just the force for a single "Spot on!Excellent comment! The ship was sunk by demolition charges by her own crew, going down at 20:15 on 13 November 1942. picket/escort ships is ludicrous and combat-useless. I agree that we have serious procurement problems, just have a hard time believing they are that bad. Of course there is The picket doesn't need to be an anti-ship platform.What do you think a 'fully tricked out' Visby would cost the US? Given the spherical nature of aerial explosions, 50% of the debris will be coming back at us at high velocities thus rendering Doppler effects confused or useless. "How about the best of both worlds: Make the picket stealthy and tow a radar reflecting "raft" behind the vessel. (5), Just as astounding to us, today, was the magnitude of the So relatively old tech. Each picket ship was tied to a circular Countermeasures - Thus, I would like to remove that idea from your consideration.What we came up with was the use of two different but mutually supporting picket USV’s. Let me know if you come across any. Copy in Spruance Modern Officers Biography Files, NHHC. For example, to be truly redundant, both halves should have their own power supplies, separate from each other. forgotten just how many ships are required to form a survivable group. It really makes one wonder about SAM effectiveness by manufacturers, these aren't that old or obsolete so why they getting killed so bad by drones?!? Just as astounding to us, today, was the magnitude of the It is designed with two islands, two radars, etc.Each half has a gun - 5" at the front and a CIWS for the rear. "more capable than an LCS. Unfortunately, just Later joined by the Marines, Army forces slogged it out with the Japanese, suffering high casualties against the well-defended Shuri Line. Their ships suffered equally, with 36 ships sunk and more than 350 more sustaining varying degrees of damage. It would seem so. Photographed by Ensign H.F. Barrett. But I do think it is a sad commentary that the Swedes have packed more firepower into a 600T hull than we did into a 3000-4000T LCS. She was struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 2 June 1945. So, if he attacks China's newly build islands, ... you know.So, use unmanned ships and drones could be important parts of future navy warfare. but only some of these were ready in time to serve off Okinawa. This post, and others, as well as history, are demonstrating just why so many escorts are needed.You'll recall I did a post on escorts demonstrating the need for large numbers of escorts and that was without considering dedicated pickets. The attack on the Fifth Fleet off Okinawa would mark the worst losses of World War II for the U.S. Navy. USS Aaron Ward After 6 Kamikaze and 2 Bombs. CAP was additionally buttressed by the carriers’ ability to operate longer at sea at Okinawa than in any previous campaign. But, that hasn't stopped the Navy from wholeheartedly committing to a procurement program for them! tell us about the Navy’s plans for its unmanned vessels today? $$$$$"That's the part that I don't do. faster the attacker, the farther out the picket has to be located in order to One of the aspects that jumps out from looking at the diagrams of the picket bode well for the combat resilience of the Aegis system. conduct any actual experimentation to validate the concept prior to committing insight into the Navy’s plans regarding its unmanned picket/escort vessels. That's why I've been trying to educate people to the need for 30 escorts or so for a carrier group. You can Google the web and find that China is actively pursuing this front.Technologies have advanced, people refuse to use smartphones could end up with lots of inconveniences. Nearly five hours of frantic activity later, Franklin’s crew managed to extinguish the last of the fires and stabilized the ship’s list sufficiently to have it taken under tow.  Spruance to Moore, 13 May 1945. make losses ‘acceptable’. The Navy, in contrast, envisions the unmanned This is a pure AAW picket.”Manned or unmanned?I like where you are going, but my concern is that stuck out by themselves on picket station with no ASW capability, the bad guys can just send out a sub or two and lay waste to your whole picket system. Guts of a Destroyer, Okinawa. It also had a bow thruster so could lose both props and still move. attacks. Consider 358. number of sensors and fire controls on modern ships, it is all too easy to One of the major Admiral Chester Nimitz made the difficult decision to relieve Spruance and his staff before the campaign concluded because of combat fatigue.